Caldas and Carl L. Bankston III. This empirical research study found unremitting reluctance by the university to identify race equality as a priority and to take appropriate action - position that persisted because of 'the sheer weight of whiteness'. The stance of the university towards racism was highlighted by a comparison between Midshire University and Midshire Police. The study found contrasts between the occupational cultures of the two organisations, but it revealed surprising parallels in their approaches to race equality, which stemmed in both from a taken for granted white norm.
The book draws out the implications of this analysis for policy makers, practitioners and lecturers who are concerned to promote racial equality in education and to combat racism. This makes the book important reading for policy makers, managers, students, practitioners and academics who are concerned to investigate and challenge racism in education. Institutional racism in the academy Midshire Police and institutional racism: a paradigm case?
The academy and pressures to promote race equality Midshire University and race equality: learning to swim Race equality in universities: continuity or change? Please fill in a complete birthday Enter a valid birthday. Thank You!
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Racism, Whiteness and Decolonising the Academy
Brand Trentham Books. Customer Reviews 0. The backlash of those against increase of black participation in politics effectively began to cause the number of participants to stop and then decline. Today, despite past involvement, black participation in politics is low. Black participation is not a common occurrence in comparison to overall participation and is often celebrated when a black candidate or politician does particularly well in their political endeavors. This decline is attributed to a white counterattack of the Black Reconstruction movement.
Many methods were used to dissuade blacks from taking office. One of the most prominent was violence. An example of that would be the Ku Klux Klan, a secretive group whose members all believed in white supremacy.
The lynching, beatings, and intimidation of black people helped to hasten the decline of black participation in politics. Coercion was also another method used to dissuade black participation in politics, particularly voting. Threats of loss jobs and refusal of medical care are some of the coercion methods employed. Coercion did not play as big of a role as direct physical violence however it did serve to further hinder the growth of black participation in politics.
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Black representation in Congress had been scarce with less than eight Blacks in Congress per Congressional periods since the end of the Civil War up until the Nixon era when there were 11 Black representatives ten in the House and one in the Senate. After the 91st Congress, Black representation began to increase.
Not only did the number of Black representatives rise; the number of Black democrats in Congress increased as well.
How can we hold those who benefit from racism accountable?
The Chinese Immigration Act, , better known as the "Chinese Exclusion Act", replaced prohibitive fees with a ban on Chinese immigration to Canada — excepting merchants, diplomats, students, and "special circumstance" cases. The Chinese who entered Canada before had to register with the local authorities, and could leave Canada only for two years or less.
The living standard of indigenous peoples in Canada falls far short of those of the non-indigenous, and they, along with other 'visible minorities' remain, as a group, the poorest in Canada. The life expectancy of First Nations people is lower; they have less high school graduates, much higher unemployment rates, nearly double the number of infant deaths and significantly greater contact with law enforcement.
Their incomes are lower, they enjoy fewer promotions in the workplace and as a group the younger members are more likely to work reduced hours or weeks each year. Many in Europe during the 19th century, as reflected in the Imperial Report of the Select Committee on Aborigines ,  supported the goal put forth by colonial imperialists of 'civilizing' the Native populations. This led to an emphasis on the acquisition of Aboriginal lands in exchange for the putative benefits of European society and their associated Christian religions.
British control of Canada the Crown began when they exercised jurisdiction over the first nations and it was by Royal Proclamation that the first piece of legislation the British government passed over First Nations citizens assumed control of their lives. It gave recognition to the Indians tribes as First Nations living under Crown protection.
It is the most significant pieces of legislation regarding the Crown 's relationship with Aboriginal people. This Royal Proclamation recognized Indian owned lands and reserved to them all use as their hunting grounds. It also established the process by which the Crown could purchase their lands, and also laid out basic principles to guide the Crown when making treaties with the First Nations.
The Proclamation made Indian lands transferred by treaty to be Crown property, and stated that indigenous title is a collective or communal rather than a private right so that individuals have no claim to lands where they lived and hunted long before the British came. In the first of many Indian Acts passed, each successive one leeched more from the rights of the indigenous as was stated in the first.
The sundry revised Indian Acts 22 times by solidified the position of Natives as wards of the state, and Indian agents were given discretionary power to control almost every aspect of the lives of the indigenous.
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The Indian Act was also used to deny Indians the right to vote until , and they could not sit on juries. In General Middleton after defeating the Metis rebellion   introduced the Pass System in western Canada, under which Natives could not leave their reserves without first obtaining a pass from their farming instructors permitting them to do so.
As Natives were not permitted at that time to become lawyers, they could not fight it in the courts. When Aboriginals began to press for recognition of their rights and to complain of corruption and abuses of power within the Indian department, the Act was amended to make it an offence for an Aboriginal person to retain a lawyer for the purpose of advancing any claims against the crown. Needless to say, the process by which they applied for their land was made deliberately ardous.
Scrip, then, was a major undertaking in Canadian history, and its importance as both an Aboriginal policy and a land policy should not be overlooked as it was an institutional 'policy' which discriminated against ethnic indigenous to their continued detriment. Until the various Indian Acts defined a 'person' as "an individual other than an Indian", and all indigenous peoples were considered wards of the state. Legally, the Crown devised a system of enfranchisement whereby an indigenous person could become a "person" in Canadian law.
Indeed, from the s to the s some Natives did give up their status in order to receive the right to go to school, vote or to drink. However, voluntary enfranchisement proved a failure when few natives took advantage. Natives automatically lost their Indian status under this policy and also if they became professionals such as doctors or ministers, or even if they obtained university degrees, and with it, their right to reside on the reserves.
The enfranchisement requirements particularly discriminated against Native women, specifying in Section 12 1 b of the Indian Act that an Indian status woman marrying a non Indian man would lose her status as an Indian, as would her children. In contrast non Indian women marrying Indian men would gain Indian status. With the goal of civilizing and Christianizing Aboriginal populations, a system of 'industrial schools' was developed in the 19th century which combined academic studies with "more practical matters" and schools for Natives began to appear in the s.
From on these schools were modelled after the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, whose motto was " Kill the Indian in him and save the man ".
How Structural Racism is Linked to Higher Rates of Police Violence
The government provided funding to religious groups such as the Catholic, Anglican, United Church and Presbyterian churches to undertake Native education. By , attendance by natives was made compulsory and there were 74 residential schools operating nationwide. Following the ideas of Sifton and others like him, the academic goals of these schools were "dumbed down". As Duncan Campbell Scott stated at the time, they didn't want students that were "made too smart for the Indian villages":  "To this end the curriculum in residential schools has been simplified and the practical instruction given is such as may be immediately of use to the pupil when he returns to the reserve after leaving school.
The funding the government provided was generally insufficient and often the schools ran themselves as "self-sufficient businesses", where 'student workers' were removed from class to do the laundry, heat the building or perform farm work. Dormitories were often poorly heated and overcrowded, and the food was less than adequately nutritious.
The author of that report to the BNA , Dr. Bryce , was later removed and in published a pamphlet  that came close to calling the governments indifference to the conditions of the Indians in the schools 'manslaughter'. The worst aspect of Canada's residential schools, and that which anthropologists Steckley and Cummins said "might readily qualify as the single-worst thing that Europeans did to Natives in Canada" was the endemic abuses;  emotional, physical and sexual, for which they are now known.
Punishments were often brutal and cruel, sometimes even life-threatening or life-ending.